The Organic Act expressly confers a number of powers on New Caledonia, which are essentially defined in section 22 of Organic Act no 99-209 of 19 March 1999 on New Caledonia.
Congress exercises the powers devolved to New Caledonia
In pursuance of section 83 of the Organic Act, Congress, namely the country’s deliberative assembly, exercises the powers conferred on New Caledonia (ie in the sense of a public authority) other than those expressly conferred by the Act on the Government of New Caledonia and its President.
For example, Congress has power over taxation, labour law, social welfare, health, road transport and traffic, professional body regulation and civil law.
A distinguishing feature of the Noumea Accord (point 2.3), is that New Caledonia’s executive is a collegial government elected by and accountable to Congress. This is one of Congress’s core powers
17 governments have been elected since 1999, including 4 in 2011.